Diode bridge rectifier,Rectifier circuits are classified into two major groups i.e., single phase and three phases. In both cases they are again classified into three main categories those are uncontrolled, half controlled and fully controlled. If we use a diode to convert this voltage we can call that as uncontrolled, instead if we use power electronic components like SCRS we can call as controlled rectifiers. We can control half wave or full wave according to the application dependency.
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The main difference between the conventional rectifier and bridge rectifier is that it produces almost double the output voltage as a full-wave center-tapped transformer rectifier using the same secondary voltage. The advantage of using this circuit is that no center-tapped transformer is required. In the center-tapped rectifier each diode uses only one-half of the transformer secondary voltage, so the DC output is comparatively small, also it is difficult to locate the center-tap on the secondary winding of the transformer and the diodes used must have high peak-inverse voltage.During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flow through the load During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1 and D2switch OFF as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through the load is the same direction as before.
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The smoothing capacitor converts the full-wave rippled output of the rectifier into a smooth DC output voltage. Generally for DC power supply circuits, the smoothing capacitor is an Aluminum Electrolytic type that has a capacitance value of 100uF or more with repeated DC voltage pulses from the rectifier charging up the capacitor to peak voltage. However, there are two important parameters to consider when choosing a suitable smoothing capacitor and these are its Working Voltage, which must be higher than the no-load output value of the rectifier and its Capacitance Value, which determines the amount of ripple that will appear superimposed on top of the DC voltage.